• A Spotlight on Millennium Development Goals

    The standard of living of many poor countries has been driven to the brink of total collapse. This is comprehensively true for many African countries, and significantly true for the countries whose citizens live far below a dollar a day.

    Where the standard of living is in abject state, everything faces a high risk of failure; the level of poverty becomes ghastly and reigns topically. The human cost of poverty living among the living is wasteful and deadly; and where poverty has a controlling stake in the life of the people and has a continuing presence and poses great challenge to growth and development, the fortunes of the victims fail to fascinate. All sectors of the economy suffer because it is a risk to let poverty thrive. It is hard to see poor countries with great success in literature, art, science and technology.

    At a United Nations summit in 2000, the UN Millennium Development Goals were set up to fight poverty, and one of the many targets is to raise the standard of living of poor countries by 2015.

    MDGs were winning formula projected to put poverty on the defensive and crush it. The goals are a campaign to do things on excellent terms to lower the bar of suffering of many people in the world who live in slums, who eat poor food (if they have any to eat), who are unable to provide good education for themselves and their children, and who live in environments that kill creativity.

    MDGs are aimed to dramatically change the lives of many people around the world with the help of developed countries. But the big questions are: how many people have been freed from the clutches of poverty? How many people in Africa have the intelligence and financial capability to order a book in Dubai through online shopping? Are more books of better creative quality published in Africa today? How many new libraries have been built in Nigeria? Can the salary of a professor of literature actually deliver all he or she needs to excel in the critical world of literature. How many scholarly journals thrive in Egypt?

    The conditions of living in Africa cast a huge doubt and a long shadow over the bright possibilities the MDGs promise. There has not been remarkable advancement in the life of poor people. Many of them continue to be victims of hardship. A diminishing economy does not have the promise of a strong access to Information Technology for the people. The hard line stance of poverty remains unacceptably high.

    The MDGs began with a grand international show of support by many developed countries. They saw the brilliant goals as giant arsenals of progress and strategies to be converted to victory over the mass of problems that repeatedly assault the progress of poor countries in the world.

    But rich countries have not given record supports needed to drive the MDGs into success. The expanded expectations of poor countries have not been greatly met. The irony is that many poor countries are great architects of their own inability to be on stronger course to meet the target of attaining improved standard of living by 2015. The fact is that they have a tremendous financial role to play, and have failed to invest in education and food production. Rather they are accomplished in the act of purchasing arms and ammunitions and funding conflicts. Some of the policies they foster are disastrous and are dangerous to the very MDGs they accepted to accomplish. Many leaders of these countries are stubbornly interested in the consolidation of the clout of corruption.

    Africa has the worst performance. 99% of African countries have derailed in the journey to make 2015 the year of elegant standard of living for the poorest continent in the world.

    The malignancy of a great number of preventable problems are steering the big continent out of course and towards a collision with a disappointing failure.

    Who knows how Somali writers in Mogadishu are faring in the face of an expanded level of poverty. Some East African countries are repeatedly hosted by drought and famine, which brings poverty and hunger, and one wonders how the children can effectively read a poem in the midst of dying cattle. And many African leaders still gallantly deny the people the color of true leadership.

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  • Poverty in Nigeria

    The landscape of poverty in Nigeria is a familiar territory for more than 75 million Nigerians who live below a dollar a day – the global benchmark of the definition of poverty. Poverty is in serious action in Nigeria. It has a strong sphere of influence in Nigeria. It is a big player in the country’s landscape. It shapes Nigeria. It remains continuously one of the major stumbling blocks in the way to the development of Nigeria. And there is no serious indication that it will exit the stage anytime soon.

    It is an established statistics that half the population of Nigeria lives below the line of poverty. This is a staggering figure for a country that prides itself and swaggers about as the giant of Africa . Since the factors that sustain and power poverty are vibrant, the possibility is very high that a massive number of Nigerians will remain under the nasty burden of the quagmires of poverty for a long time.

    Massive level of unemployment continues to create huge frameworks that keep poverty going. Unemployment causes Nigeria to increasingly succeed in the rapid expansion of the frontiers of poverty. Poverty succeeds in choosing its route to the top in a country that has consistently failed to create jobs for its teaming army of jobless citizens.

    The legacy of corruption in Nigeria is legendary. It strongly drives Nigeria to advance the course of poverty in an epic scale. It causes the ability of most political leaders to create jobs to collapse. Corruption offers the touchstone of failure when the handlers of the economy are drowned in the cesspool of corruption.

    Many managers of Nigeria ’s resources do so for their narrow interests, instead of making the national, economic and political activities to resonate beyond personal interests; this kind of mindset has led to large scale squandering of the country’s resources which would have been used to carve useful jobs for the citizens.

    Because the government is the biggest spender, many Nigerians tend to depend on the government for virtually everything. They are addicted to the idea that government should provide everything – electricity, water, food and road. But government is not always strong where it counts. The government is not always the front runner in the provision of water, electricity, food and job. Many Nigerians have consistently failed to realize that the government can not place them ahead of all their existential problems. The government can not always push them to have a head start over hunger and poverty because the government is not perfect and has failed on many fronts.

    The impact of poverty on Nigeria is frightening. Many things are not running smoothly because of poverty. Poverty has a case against security. It drives insecurity to a grim level. Poverty empowers many criminal gangs to wreck peace and stability. It ups the ante of criminal activities like armed robbery, assassination, kidnapping and corruption. It makes Nigeria suffer the decline of fortunes, like the loss of knowledgeable human resources to foreign countries through migration, and the trafficking of young people to foreign countries for prostitution and inhuman labor. Poverty causes a cataclysmic storm which races to erode the moral, cultural, natural and national heritages of Nigeria .

    Seminal schemes are needed to lift Nigerians out of the iron clad grip of poverty .Nigeria can recoil from the domain of poverty if its extensive resources are rightly put into proper and productive use. The conservative grip of poverty on the country should be broken by Nigerians through a clear and genuine demonstration of nation building. Nigerian economy should be shaped to be the fastest growing economy, at least in Africa, if not in the world, for a fast growing economy has the increasing likelihood to be a fast job-creating economy.

    This article written by Uchechukwu Agodom was first published by Nigerian newspaper National Daily.

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  • Is Political Thuggery a Profession?

    Political thuggery creates and furthers the climate of fear, violence, disorder and conflicts. Its contribution to peace is disorder, disharmony and everything in the neighborhood of violence.

    Political thugs commit themselves to maim and kill their perceived enemies in their inglorious campaign to build terror and horror. They glory in burning public and private properties. They turn elections into chaos when they intimidate voters, steal and speed away with ballot boxes. They turn polling booths into theaters of war. There is no end to the massive disruptions they can launch in any society. There is no end to the businesses of conflicts they can unleash.

    For the society where political thuggery thrives, woes are lively accompaniments; woes are regular occurrences especially during election time. Any person is a potential target; any place is a potential takeover target for the thugs. They threaten social life with a tragic mix of vices. They ruin and reduce to rubbles the sense of calm, harmony and peace.

    Political thuggery appears to have become a profession in Nigeria as many political thugs have no other jobs than to continuously cling to thuggery. They are fluent in the language and art of thuggery. Some of them have been in the business of thuggery all their lives that they have gained considerable working knowledge of thuggery. Since they have no other jobs to return to especially when political campaign and other political activities are at lowest level, they lie low until another round of political activities begins.

    Political thuggery has become a regular face or feature in Nigerian politics. It is becoming more sophisticated with all its elements of banditry, robbery, violence, intimidation, assassination and climate of uncertainty and fear. As a performance backed and denominated by violence, political thugs increasingly brandish all sorts of sophisticated weapons and dangerous schemes to keep their energetic profession alive and kicking.

    Nigerian society is no way near the end of political thuggery as many things direct and elevate political thuggery into stronger existence. Nigeria’s vast natural resources have huge opportunities for the creation of jobs, but the strength of these opportunities are diminished and eroded by the strong and stubborn surge of mismanagement, somersaulting policies, massive corruption and the waste of abundant resources. Instead of directing the large portion of the resources to job creation to escape the quagmires of unemployment and its destructive and deadly consequences, many Nigerians erect the pillar of corruption against sustainable growth and rapid development.

    Political thuggery should not be allowed to blossom into a high profile profession. Political thuggery has a terrible knock-on effect. It should not be allowed to proliferate, for the sins perpetrated under it are horrific. A wave of public, private and corporate acts should be used to uproot it and consign it in the dustbin of history.
    This article written by Uchechukwu Agodom was first published in Nigerian newspaper Daily Trust.

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  • The Opportunity in High Food Price

    High degree food price is affecting many people in different parts of the world. It is a tragic and traumatic situation to be faced by high cost of food.

    There is denial of food for the poor due to spike in food price. High food price also displays its presence with a lethal cocktail of rise in crimes, riots, escalating hunger and general atmosphere of uncertainty. High cost of food pushes people to go hungry. Hunger is in an accelerating state whenever there is high cost of food. In time of rocketing price of food, people cut the money budgeted for other human activities to contain the advance of hunger. Those human activities become sentenced to anemic state of existence.

    High cost of food has continued to remain a frustrating challenge to people, but it also sentences people to the climate of opportunity. The ultimate opportunity that comes with high food price is the need for the swift expansion of agriculture which can lift many poor farmers out of poverty as agriculture is a goldmine. The spike in food price is an opportunity for a heroic undertaking by corporate bodies to enlarge the coast of agriculture by supporting workers in the agricultural sector. Banks need to take advantage of the expensive cost of food to provide higher levels of fund for the growth of agriculture. It is an opening for the government to poor more financial goodwill into the agricultural sector and constructs good strategies that are hugely eloquent for the development of agriculture. High food price offers the chance for people without responsible jobs to be responsibly engaged in large scale agriculture.

    Agriculture is a vast goldmine which can turn many of the world’s poor farmers into millionaires. Food is big business; given one of the eloquent facts that the fast growing population of the world means more mouths gaping to be fed. The last food crises should have made farmers to broaden their agricultural activities for bigger and better harvest. It should have driven the governments to greatly attempt to score bigger points on the future of agriculture in terms of increased productivity, and make extraordinary progress in the containment or eradication of food crisis and the cancellation of the embarrassing tide of high food crises.

    We can not run out of sound options in the genuine search for concrete solutions for the high cost of food that will continue to face human beings in the age of globalization. Enormous burst of government, corporate and individual spending on agriculture is seriously needed. The dramatic use of improved and new technologies is needed to speed up production. People should heavily indulge in the act of growing crops in the idle land around them, even as a hobby.

    It is a mega-myth that the world can not feed itself as some people think, for the earth has abundant resources that can be properly tailored to generate food and the other needs of human beings, but the progress of global growth is impeded by greed, illiteracy, overpopulation and a host of other competing factors that weigh heavily on human beings.
    The key to a sustainable recovery from the plague of incessant food crises or high cost of food is for people to massively invest in agriculture. We stand in danger of stagnation if we choose to do adequately not enough.

    This article written by Uchechukwu Agodom was first published by Nigerian newspaper National Daily.

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  • Remembering Modern Library’s 100 best books

    The Modern Library initiated the 100 best books project , fiction and nonfiction, of the 20th century .There was the readers’ poll for the best novels published in the English language since 1900, which was opened on July 20, 1998 and was closed on October 20, 1998.
    It should be known that the best works were not perfectly the view of all readers, and that there have been other rival and, or, independent lists, still subject to controversy, and it should be noted that some lists contain some controversial entries. Some readers would like to see some books out of the lists, and others see some books merit presence on the lists.Some of the books were once banned, and some are still considered as offensive to some people’s sensibilities, like ‘The Satanic Verses,’ ‘Fahrenheit 451′ and ‘Lolita,’

    The Board’ list

    The novels under the board’s list include the once-banned ‘Ulysses’ by James Joyce, the stirring ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the famous George Orwell’s ‘1984’ whose theme still haunts the world, William Golding’s ‘The Lord Of The Flies’ whose tragic world is a mirror of our world, ‘The Sun Also Rises’ full of economy of words by Ernest Hemingway, ‘The Heart Of Darkness’ by Joseph Conrad, a story which contains disturbing images about Africa.
    1. ULYSSES by James Joyce
    2. THE GREAT GATSBY by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    3. A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN by James Joyce
    4. LOLITA by Vladimir Nabokov
    5. BRAVE NEW WORLD by Aldous Huxley
    6. THE SOUND AND THE FURY by William Faulkner
    7. CATCH-22
    8. DARKNESS AT NOON by Arthur Koestler
    9. SONS AND LOVERS by D.H. Lawrence
    10.THE GRAPES OF WRATH by John Steinbeck
    11.UNDER THE VOLCANO by Malcolm Lowry
    12.THE WAY OF ALL FLESH by Samuel Butler
    13.1984 by George Orwell
    14.I, CLAUDIUS by Robert Graves
    15.TO THE LIGHTHOUSE by Virginia Woolf
    16.AN AMERICAN TRAGEDY by Theodore Dreiser
    17.THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTER by Carson McCullers
    18.SLAUGHTERHOUSE-FIVE by Kurt Vonnegut
    19.INVISIBLE MAN by Ralph Ellison
    20.NATIVE SON by Richard Wright
    21.HENDERSON THE RAIN KING by Saul Bellow
    22.APPOINTMENT IN SAMARRA by John O’Hara
    23.U.S.A. (trilogy) by John Dos Passos
    24.WINESBURG, OHIO by Sherwood Anderson
    25.A PASSAGE TO INDIA by E.M. Forster
    26.THE WINGS OF THE DOVE by Henry James
    27.THE AMBASSADORS by Henry James
    28.TENDER IS THE NIGHT by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    29.THE STUDS LONIGAN TRILOGY by James T. Farrell
    30.THE GOOD SOLDIER by Ford Madox Ford
    31.ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell
    32.THE GOLDEN BOWL by Henry James
    33.SISTER CARRIE by Theodore Dreiser
    34.A HANDFUL OF DUST by Evelyn Waugh
    35.AS I LAY DYING by William Faulkner
    36.ALL THE KING’S MEN by Robert Penn Warren
    37.THE BRIDGE OF SAN LUIS REY by Thornton Wilder
    38.HOWARDS END by E.M. Forster
    39.GO TELL IT ON THE MOUNTAIN by James Baldwin
    40.THE HEART OF THE MATTER by Graham Greene
    41.LORD OF THE FLIES by William Golding
    42.DELIVERANCE by James Dickey
    43.A DANCE TO THE MUSIC OF TIME (series) by Anthony Powell
    44.POINT COUNTER POINT by Aldous Huxley
    45.THE SUN ALSO RISES by Ernest Hemingway
    46.THE SECRET AGENT by Joseph Conrad
    47.NOSTROMO by Joseph Conrad
    48.THE RAINBOW by D.H. Lawrence
    49.WOMEN IN LOVE by D.H. Lawrence
    50.TROPIC OF CANCER by Henry Miller
    51.THE NAKED AND THE DEAD by Norman Mailer
    52.PORTNOY’S COMPLAINT by Philip Roth
    53.PALE FIRE by Vladimir Nabokov
    54.LIGHT IN AUGUST by William Faulkner
    55.ON THE ROAD by Jack Kerouac
    56.THE MALTESE FALCON by Dashiell Hammett
    57.PARADE’S END by Ford Madox Ford
    58.THE AGE OF INNOCENCE by Edith Wharton
    59.ZULEIKA DOBSON by Max Beerbohm
    60.THE MOVIEGOER by Walker Percy
    61.DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP by Willa Cather
    62.FROM HERE TO ETERNITY by James Jones
    63.THE WAPSHOT CHRONICLES by John Cheever
    64.THE CATCHER IN THE RYE by J.D. Salinger
    65.A CLOCKWORK ORANGE by Anthony Burgess
    66.OF HUMAN BONDAGE by W. Somerset Maugham
    67.HEART OF DARKNESS by Joseph Conrad
    68.MAIN STREET by Sinclair Lewis
    69.THE HOUSE OF MIRTH by Edith Wharton
    70.THE ALEXANDRIA QUARTET by Lawrence Durell
    71.A HIGH WIND IN JAMAICA by Richard Hughes
    72.A HOUSE FOR MR BISWAS by V.S. Naipaul
    73.THE DAY OF THE LOCUST by Nathanael West
    74.A FAREWELL TO ARMS by Ernest Hemingway
    75.SCOOP by Evelyn Waugh
    76.THE PRIME OF MISS JEAN BRODIE by Muriel Spark
    77.FINNEGANS WAKE by James Joyce
    78.KIM by Rudyard Kipling
    79.A ROOM WITH A VIEW by E.M. Forster
    80.BRIDESHEAD REVISITED by Evelyn Waugh
    81.THE ADVENTURES OF AUGIE MARCH by Saul Bellow
    82.ANGLE OF REPOSE by Wallace Stegner
    83.A BEND IN THE RIVER by V.S. Naipaul
    84.THE DEATH OF THE HEART by Elizabeth Bowen
    85.LORD JIM by Joseph Conrad
    86.RAGTIME by E.L. Doctorow
    87.THE OLD WIVES’ TALE by Arnold Bennett
    88.THE CALL OF THE WILD by Jack London
    89.LOVING by Henry Green
    90.MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN by Salman Rushdie
    91.TOBACCO ROAD by Erskine Caldwell
    92.IRONWEED by William Kennedy
    93.THE MAGUS by John Fowles
    94.WIDE SARGASSO SEA by Jean Rhys
    95.UNDER THE NET by Iris Murdoch
    96.SOPHIE’S CHOICE by William Styron
    97.THE SHELTERING SKY by Paul Bowles
    98.THE POSTMAN ALWAYS RINGS TWICE by James M. Cain
    99.THE GINGER MAN by J.P. Donleavy
    100. THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS by Booth Tarkington

    The Readers’ List

    The novels on this list include ‘Animal Farm’ by George Orwell which showed the world of dictatorial inclination, the moving ‘Beloved’ by Toni Morrison, the style-powered ‘As I Lay Dying’ by William Faulkner, and the controversial ‘The Satanic Verses’ which pitched the Islamic world against the British author Salman Rushdie.
    1. ATLAS SHRUGGED by Ayn Rand
    2. THE FOUNTAINHEAD by Ayn Rand
    3. BATTLEFIELD EARTH by L. Ron Hubbard
    4. THE LORD OF THE RINGS by J.R.R. Tolkien
    5. TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD by Harper Lee
    6. 1984 by George Orwell
    7. ANTHEM by Ayn Rand
    8. WE THE LIVING by Ayn Rand
    9. MISSION EARTH by L. Ron Hubbard
    10.FEAR by L. Ron Hubbard
    11.ULYSSES by James Joyce
    12.CATCH-22 by Joseph Heller
    13.THE GREAT GATSBY by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    14.DUNE by Frank Herbert
    15.THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS by Robert Heinlein
    16.STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND by Robert Heinlein
    17.A TOWN LIKE ALICE by Nevil Shute
    18.BRAVE NEW WORLD by Aldous Huxley
    19.THE CATCHER IN THE RYE by J.D. Salinger
    20.ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell
    21.GRAVITY’S RAINBOW by Thomas Pynchon
    22.THE GRAPES OF WRATH by John Steinbeck
    23.SLAUGHTERHOUSE FIVE by Kurt Vonnegut
    24.GONE WITH THE WIND by Margaret Mitchell
    25.LORD OF THE FLIES by William Golding
    26.SHANE by Jack Schaefer
    27.TRUSTEE FROM THE TOOLROOM by Nevil Shute
    28.A PRAYER FOR OWEN MEANY by John Irving
    29.THE STAND by Stephen King
    30.THE FRENCH LIEUTENANT’S WOMAN by John Fowles
    31.BELOVED by Toni Morrison
    32.THE WORM OUROBOROS by E.R. Eddison
    33.THE SOUND AND THE FURY by William Faulkner
    34.LOLITA by Vladimir Nabokov
    35.MOONHEART by Charles de Lint
    36.ABSALOM, ABSALOM! by William Faulkner
    37.OF HUMAN BONDAGE by W. Somerset Maugham
    38.WISE BLOOD by Flannery O’Connor
    39.UNDER THE VOLCANO by Malcolm Lowry
    40.FIFTH BUSINESS by Robertson Davies
    41.SOMEPLACE TO BE FLYING by Charles de Lint
    42.ON THE ROAD by Jack Kerouac
    43.HEART OF DARKNESS by Joseph Conrad
    44.YARROW by Charles de Lint
    45.AT THE MOUNTAINS OF MADNESS by H.P. Lovecraft
    46.ONE LONELY NIGHT by Mickey Spillane
    47.MEMORY AND DREAM by Charles de Lint
    48.TO THE LIGHTHOUSE by Virginia Woolf
    49.THE MOVIEGOER by Walker Percy
    50.TRADER by Charles de Lint
    51.THE HITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY by Douglas Adams
    52.THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTER by Carson McCullers
    53.THE HANDMAID’S TALE by Margaret Atwood
    54.BLOOD MERIDIAN by Cormac McCarthy
    55.A CLOCKWORK ORANGE by Anthony Burgess
    56.ON THE BEACH by Nevil Shute
    57.A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN by James Joyce
    58.GREENMANTLE by Charles de Lint
    59.ENDER’S GAME by Orson Scott Card
    60.THE LITTLE COUNTRY by Charles de Lint
    61.THE RECOGNITIONS by William Gaddis
    62.STARSHIP TROOPERS by Robert Heinlein
    63.THE SUN ALSO RISES by Ernest Hemingway
    64.THE WORLD ACCORDING TO GARP by John Irving
    65.SOMETHING WICKED THIS WAY COMES by Ray Bradbury
    66.THE HAUNTING OF HILL HOUSE by Shirley Jackson
    67.AS I LAY DYING by William Faulkner
    68.TROPIC OF CANCER by Henry Miller
    69.INVISIBLE MAN by Ralph Ellison
    70.THE WOOD WIFE by Terri Windling
    71.THE MAGUS by John Fowles
    72.THE DOOR INTO SUMMER by Robert Heinlein
    73.ZEN AND THE ART OF MOTORCYCLE MAINTENANCE by Robert Pirsig
    74.I, CLAUDIUS by Robert Graves
    75.THE CALL OF THE WILD by Jack London
    76.AT SWIM-TWO-BIRDS by Flann O’Brien
    77.FAHRENHEIT 451 by Ray Bradbury
    78.ARROWSMITH by Sinclair Lewis
    79.WATERSHIP DOWN by Richard Adams
    80.NAKED LUNCH by William S. Burroughs
    81.THE HUNT FOR RED OCTOBER by Tom Clancy
    82.GUILTY PLEASURES by Laurell K. Hamilton
    83.THE PUPPET MASTERS by Robert Heinlein
    84.IT by Stephen King
    85.V. by Thomas Pynchon
    86.DOUBLE STAR by Robert Heinlein
    87.CITIZEN OF THE GALAXY by Robert Heinlein
    88.BRIDESHEAD REVISITED by Evelyn Waugh
    89.LIGHT IN AUGUST by William Faulkner
    90.ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO’S NEST by Ken Kesey
    91.A FAREWELL TO ARMS by Ernest Hemingway
    92.THE SHELTERING SKY by Paul Bowles
    93.SOMETIMES A GREAT NOTION by Ken Kesey
    94.MY ANTONIA by Willa Cather
    95.MULENGRO by Charles de Lint
    96.SUTTREE by Cormac McCarthy
    97.MYTHAGO WOOD by Robert Holdstock
    98.ILLUSIONS by Richard Bach
    99.THE CUNNING MAN by Robertson Davies
    100. THE SATANIC VERSES by Salman Rushdie

    Modern Library’s Top Board Picks for Novels and Nonfiction

    The list, a rival list, was compiled and released by the Radcliffe Publishing Course On July 21, 1998
    based on the request of the Modern Library editorial board.
    The only African book that made the list is ‘Things Fall Apart’ by Chinua Achebe, a novel of African world encountered by colonialism, ‘A Good Man Is Hard To Find’ by Flannery O’Connor, a book of the tragic end of a family under the auspices of a criminal, and some other controversial books like ‘Ulysses’ and ‘The Satanic Verses’.
    1. THE GREAT GATSBY by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    2. THE CATCHER IN THE RYE by J.D. Salinger
    3. THE GRAPES OF WRATH by John Steinbeck
    4. TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD by Harper Lee
    5. THE COLOR PURPLE by Alice Walker
    6. ULYSSES by James Joyce
    7. BELOVED by Toni Morrison
    8. THE LORD OF THE FLIES by William Golding
    9. 1984 by George Orwell
    10.THE SOUND AND THE FURY by William Faulkner
    11.LOLITA by Vladmir Nabokov
    12.OF MICE AND MEN by John Steinbeck
    13.CHARLOTTE’S WEB by E.B. White
    14.A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN by James Joyce
    15.CATCH-22 by Joseph Heller
    16.BRAVE NEW WORLD by Aldous Huxley
    17.ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell
    18.THE SUN ALSO RISES by Ernest Hemingway
    19.AS I LAY DYING by William Faulkner
    20.A FAREWELL TO ARMS by Ernest Hemingway
    21.HEART OF DARKNESS by Joseph Conrad
    22.WINNIE-THE-POOH by A.A. Milne
    23.THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD by Zora Neale Hurston
    24.INVISIBLE MAN by Ralph Ellison
    25.SONG OF SOLOMON by Toni Morrison
    26.GONE WITH THE WIND by Margaret Mitchell
    27.NATIVE SON by Richard Wright
    28.ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO’S NEST by Ken Kesey
    29.SLAUGHTERHOUSE-FIVE by Kurt Vonnegut
    30.FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS by Ernest Hemingway
    31.ON THE ROAD by Jack Kerouac
    32.THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA by Ernest Hemingway
    33.THE CALL OF THE WILD by Jack London
    34.TO THE LIGHTHOUSE by Virginia Woolf
    35.PORTRAIT OF A LADY by Henry James
    36.GO TELL IT ON THE MOUNTAIN by James Baldwin
    37.THE WORLD ACCORDING TO GARP by John Irving
    38.ALL THE KING’S MEN by Robert Penn Warren
    39.A ROOM WITH A VIEW by E.M. Forster
    40.THE LORD OF THE RINGS by J.R.R. Tolkien
    41.SCHINDLER’S LIST by Thomas Keneally
    42.THE AGE OF INNOCENCE by Edith Wharton
    43.THE FOUNTAINHEAD by Ayn Rand
    44.FINNEGANS WAKE by James Joyce
    45.THE JUNGLE by Upton Sinclair
    46.MRS. DALLOWAY by Virginia Woolf
    47.THE WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ by L. Frank Baum
    48.LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER by D.H. Lawrence
    49.A CLOCKWORK ORANGE by Anthony Burgess
    50.THE AWAKENING by Kate Chopin
    51.MY ANTONIA by Willa Cather
    52.HOWARDS END by E.M. Forster
    53.IN COLD BLOOD by Truman Capote
    54.FRANNY AND ZOOEY by J.D. Salinger
    55.THE SATANIC VERSES by Salman Rushdie
    56.JAZZ by Toni Morrison
    57.SOPHIE’S CHOICE by William Styron
    58.ABSALOM, ABSALOM! by William Faulkner
    59.A PASSAGE TO INDIA by E.M. Forster
    60.ETHAN FROME by Edith Wharton
    61.A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND by Flannery O’Connor
    62.TENDER IS THE NIGHT by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    63.ORLANDO by Virginia Woolf
    64.SONS AND LOVERS by D.H. Lawrence
    65.BONFIRE OF THE VANITIES by Tom Wolfe
    66.CAT’S CRADLE by Kurt Vonnegut
    67.A SEPARATE PEACE by John Knowles
    68.LIGHT IN AUGUST by William Faulkner
    69.THE WINGS OF THE DOVE by Henry James
    70.THINGS FALL APART by Chinua Achebe
    71.REBECCA by Daphne du Maurier
    72.A HITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY by Douglas Adams
    73.NAKED LUNCH by William S. Burroughs
    74.BRIDESHEAD REVISITED by Evelyn Waugh
    75.WOMEN IN LOVE by D.H. Lawrence
    76.LOOK HOMEWARD, ANGEL by Thomas Wolfe
    77.IN OUR TIME by Ernest Hemingway
    78.THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ALICE B. TOKIAS by Gertrude Stein
    79.THE MALTESE FALCON by Dashiell Hammett
    80.THE NAKED AND THE DEAD by Norman Mailer
    81.WIDE SARGASSO SEA by Jean Rhys
    82.WHITE NOISE by Don DeLillo
    83.O PIONEERS! by Willa Cather
    84.TROPIC OF CANCER by Henry Miller
    85.THE WAR OF THE WORLDS by H.G. Wells
    86.LORD JIM by Joseph Conrad
    87.THE BOSTONIANS by Henry James
    88.AN AMERICAN TRAGEDY by Theodore Dreiser
    89.DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP by Willa Cather
    90.THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS by Kenneth Grahame
    91.THIS SIDE OF PARADISE by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    92.ATLAS SHRUGGED by Ayn Rand
    93.THE FRENCH LIEUTENANT’S WOMAN by John Fowles
    94.BABBITT by Sinclair Lewis
    95.KIM by Rudyard Kipling
    96.THE BEAUTIFUL AND THE DAMNED by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    97.RABBIT, RUN by John Updike
    98.WHERE ANGELS FEAR TO TREAD by E.M. Forster
    99.MAIN STREET by Sinclair Lewis
    100. MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN by Salman Rushdie

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